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DESIGN GUIDELINES MANUAL

for

BEVERLY, WEST VIRGINIA

Prepared for the Elkins Historic Landmark Commission
May 1997

by Michael Gioulis, Historic Preservation Consultant 612 Main Street Sutton, WV 26601

The project that was the purpose of this activity has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, and administered by the West Virginia Division of Culture and History. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendations by the Department of the Interior.

This program received Federal funds from the National Park Service. Regulations of the U.S. Department of the Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age or handicap. Any person who believes he or she has been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal Opportunity Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service,

P.O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20013-7127.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
What are Design Guidelines
History and Development of Beverly
Beverly’s Historic Architecture
General Concepts of Preservation
Rehabilitation Design Guidelines
New Construction Design Guidelines
Design Guidelines for Additional Elements
Appendix A - Bibliography
Appendix B - Glossary
Appendix C - Additional Architectural Styles

Introduction

The town of Beverly, Randolph County, West Virginia, and the Elkins Historic Landmark Commission, have long recognized the significance of Beverly’s history to its continued development and preservation. Beverly’s historic architecture and the history that shaped the town and the county have been the focus of study, documentation and projects for a number of years. The Beverly Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980 and the Blackman Bosworth Store listed in 1975, exhibiting the significant role that historic preservation has played in Beverly.

In recognizing the citizens’ desire to protect the historic qualities that are the heritage of Beverly, the following design guidelines for maintenance, rehabilitation, and new construction have been developed by the Elkins Historic Landmark Commission.

The design guidelines were developed to reflect the specific character of Beverly’s historic sites. They are intended to assist property owners in maintaining, rehabilitating, repairing and adding to historic buildings while respecting the original significant character that exists today. They are generally written to allow for individual application and flexibility for owners, while retaining the important architectural features of the building in question.


What are Design Guidelines?

These design guidelines were prepared to assist property owners, developers, architects, and designers of projects. They offer suggestions for rehabilitation of historic buildings and compatible new design to maintain Beverly’s strong historic identity.

These guidelines are intended to:

THESE GUIDELINES ARE STRICTLY VOLUNTARY. They cannot force a property owner into doing a specific action on their property, only recommend appropriate and proper methods of accomplishing what the owner wanted to in the first place.

The guidelines are based on the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings. See page 12.

Additional information and assistance is available from the Elkins Historic Landmark Commission; the Beverly Historic Landmark Commission; the West Virginia Division of Culture and History, State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO); and the National Park Service. The SHPO and the National Park Service publish a number of informational pamphlets based on the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards. These include Preservation Briefs, and Tech Notes which offer information on rehabilitation techniques such as cleaning masonry, repairing windows, and making houses energy efficient. A list of resources is contained in the Bibliography.


History and Development of Beverly

The town of Beverly was founded in 1790 and established as the county seat. Nestled along the meandering course of the Tygarts Valley River in the mountainous region of north-central West Virginia, the town and surrounding countryside is steeped in history.

The first settlers were the Files (Foyles) and Tygart (Taggart) families in 1753. The Files homestead was attacked and burned by Indians the following year. All of the family were killed except one boy, who fled back east over the mountains with the Tygarts.

In 1772, several families settled permanently in the valley. Randolph County was formed in 1787, and a town was laid out on the lands of James Westfall. At first known as Edmundton, the town was chartered as Beverly in 1790 and established as the county seat.

Beverly was the commercial and trading center of the county. With the completion of the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike in 1847, and the Beverly-Fairmont Pike in 1852, it became a major crossroads as well.

The Civil War brought many changes to the town. At first a Confederate supply post, the Battle of Rich Mountain, fought five miles to the west, established Union control over the area. Many of the town’s residents held southern sympathies, and some left town when the Union troops arrived. Beverly was occupied by Federal troops through most of the war. It was raided by Confederates four times, twice successfully, but they were not able to maintain control for long.

Following the war, many refugees and soldiers returned home, and damaged and destroyed buildings were rebuilt. The town slowly recovered as a trading center. The coming of the railroads and lumber and coal industries in the 1890’s brought prosperity to the region, but most of the activity was centered around the new town of Elkins. In 1898, after several years of controversy, the county seat was moved from Beverly to Elkins. A number of new commercial buildings were built in the early years of the twentieth century, but through the years Beverly became more of a residential community.


Beverly’s Historic Architecture

Much of the existing and historic architecture in Beverly is residential in character. The overall ambiance of the town is one of a residential community. There is a small section of concentrated development, around the original courthouse square, that contains some commercial buildings.

Residential styles

Cabins

Many of the earliest buildings in Beverly were log cabins. These were either one or two story rectangular houses with few windows or openings. In most cases, the log cabins that survived very long were added on to, and the exterior and interior surfaces covered over, as the family became more established. A few of these cabins still exist as parts of larger homes.

I-House

A very common building style used over a long period of time is the I-house. This is a term for a vernacular house that is one room deep, two rooms long often with a central entrance and hall, two stories high, with a gable roof. It is most commonly either 3-bay (window, door, window) across the front, or 5-bay (2 windows, door, 2 windows). As seen from the front, these houses are basically symmetrical. Most of these houses in the Beverly vicinity are built of wood frame construction, but a few are of brick. Often they would have a one or two story L extension at right angles in the rear, either as part of the original construction or as a later addition. I-houses in Beverly and vicinity (they were common as farmhouses as well) still exist dating from the early 19th century through the early 20th century. Some houses which were originally I-houses have been added on to, either at one end or at the back, thus making the original configuration less obvious today. Chimney placement can help to indicate the age of the house, as the early 19th century houses tended to have outside end chimneys on either end, while later houses would more likely have interior chimneys. Earlier homes were also more likely to have windows with 6 or more panes, or lights, in each sash, while later houses would have fewer, larger, lights. The larger and more affluent houses of this type may be considered to be of Federal style of architecture, or may have some Federal style ornamentation such as shutters or doors with sidelights or fanlights.

Federal Style

This is a residential style that usually contains a side gable or front gable entrance; two stories tall, with a simple exterior appearance. Openings, doors and windows are generally symmetrical on the facade. Windows may be six over six or nine over nine or other variations on multiple panes. There is a shallow overhang of the roof, sometimes with corbeled brick or other detailing at the top of the wall. Gable rakes are usually the same plane as the wall. The entrance may have a fanlight or sidelights.

Tri-Gable L

By the late 19th or early 20th century, it became more common to build houses that were not symmetrical in their front appearance. They may have an extension, or L, facing the street with a broader section behind. These are called a tri-gable L for the three gables. These homes are usually wood frame, often with porches, ornamental trim or scrollwork, and possibly bay windows.

Princess or Queen Anne Style

Highly ornamented, asymmetrical building style popular from 1880 through 1900 often featuring a combination of hipped and gable roofs, wall texture variations, and a tower. Elaborate, often architect design versions, were called Queen Anne; less elaborate houses utilizing some of the same elements are called Princess Anne. There usually was a porch that wrapped around the front and side of the house. The roof would be a combination of shapes, with the main roof being hipped. There would be much wood ornamentation at the eaves, the porches, around the windows and doors, and at the crest of the roof. These were usually wood framed buildings with German, clapboard, shingle or other siding. Some examples were a combination of siding materials.

Bungalow Style

A number of Beverly houses from 1910 through 1940 are of a bungalow style. These are likely to be one or 1 story, sometimes with porch roofs integral to the roof line instead of added on. The roofs were broad and a prominent feature of the house. Many had dormers, either gable or shed roofed. There was always a porch, usually with square or squat columns supporting the roof. Many had raised first floors, with a "heavy" appearing foundation level, of brick, stone or molded concrete block. There often were brackets or exposed structural elements in the roof supports. Many windows were novelty shapes with odd numbered vertical divisions in the upper sash. Many of these houses are now over 50 years old, and are now considered historic homes.

Four Square

This style is usually 2 stories with a hip roof and front one story porch. The footprint, or plan, of the house is usually square, resulting in the term. Windows are often one over one, or other variations on Colonial Revival or Neo Classical style windows. Details are also often similar to Neo Classical styles. Often there are dormers on the roof.

Commercial and Public Buildings

Many early commercial buildings were of similar styles to the houses. Some were simple rectangular buildings, with either the side or gable end facing the street, but more massive than the houses. They were built of either wood frame or brick. An unusual feature found in several early Beverly buildings are windows with 9 lights above 6 lights.

Many of the commercial buildings built from the 1890’s through the 1920’s had a "false front" facade with a front parapet wall with a gable or false gable peak in the center. Some were covered with stamped metal siding instead of wood siding. Almost all are two stories high.

Both of the churches in Beverly are wood frame structures dating from the latter half of the 19th century, with Gothic Revival design features and ornamentation.

Romanesque Revival

The Beverly Bank is a good example of this. It has arched windows and an arched entrance. It also has a corner pediment parapet with pilasters between each of the bays that are topped with capitols. Most Romanesque buildings are made of brick or stone and have a relatively rough texture.


General Concepts of Preservation

 

The existing buildings combined with the streetscape and block patterns, open spaces, and other elements that make up Beverly, form the overall experience. The effect is one of a rural residential community. The individual elements that are a part of this experience must be recognized and preserved in order to protect and continue the existing sense of space and time.

Much of this protection can be accomplished simply, with maintenance and repairs to the existing buildings. Following these guidelines, these projects can preserve the architectural and historic character identified in Beverly.

When new construction or additions are necessary for the continued use of a site, the new elements must enhance the existing historic character and still be identified as significant architecture on its own.

Issues

The overall character of Beverly is defined initially by urban design issues. These are then further refined to include specific architectural issues, such as style detailing, etc. The design issues include

Blocks

Beverly is predominantly residential in nature. The block or street structure is composed of two way traffic with parking lanes adjacent to the sidewalk. There is a buffer strip of planting alongside the curb, followed by the sidewalk walking surface. Much of this surface is concrete or brick paving. The blocks contain detached houses mostly, with four to six per block. In the courthouse square and the adjacent commercial streets, the buildings are more concentrated with the face of the building on the front property line, forming a wall of buildings on the street. Within these blocks, other elements of design contribute to further define the character of the town.

Massing

The overall shape and mass of buildings in Beverly is significant to defining the character. They are usually two stories tall, front facing, either square or with rectangular block connected to provide a relatively square overall footprint, set back from the sidewalk. The effect is to visually provide a series of blocks within open spaces.

The overall masses also contain shorter or secondary masses at the rear. These relate to kitchen ells or additions on original buildings. There often also is a one story or two story porch on the rear, which may be shorter than the roof. There is also often a front porch, one or two stories.

Outbuildings usually are located to the rear of the main house. They also are generally shorter than the main house.

The intent of the guidelines is to continue this massing system, or rhythm.

Setbacks

Most of the houses in Beverly are set back from the front property line, providing a front yard. This is important to interpreting the residential character of the town.

The intent of the guidelines is to maintain this feature.

Yards

Most houses have rear yards as well as side yards.

The intent of the guidelines is to provide side and rear yards, to create the character of free standing buildings.

Height

Most of the buildings in Beverly are two stories tall. They are all relatively similar in height, with gable or hip roofs.

The intent of the guidelines is to have buildings similar in height, to provide a cohesive ambiance to the town. Buildings that are too tall will create a barrier to the rhythm of the massing in town. Buildings that are too short will create a void or space in the rhythm of the blocks.

Rhythm

The rhythm of the buildings in Beverly establishes the overall opening and solid feeling of the blocks. Within the blocks, each building also contains a rhythm. These are established by the arrangement of windows and doors versus solid wall sections.

Roof lines

Roofs are very important to defining residential architectural styles. Most roofs in Beverly are gable or hip. Some commercial style buildings contain flat roofs, but these are rare in Beverly.

The intent of the guidelines is to have roofs be similar in shape and character to their neighbors, to maintain the overall effect and rhythm

Stories

Most buildings have their different stories identified on the exterior by the position of windows and doors, installation of belt courses, cornices or other details, or by the arrangement of porches, etc. Though the overall height can be similar, buildings with different floor levels will not appear the same from the exterior and will spoil the cohesiveness of the neighborhood.

The intent of the guidelines is to have buildings with similar proportions, indicated by identifying floor levels. Tall buildings and large massed buildings should have the massing broken with floor level indicators and window and door positions in proportion to adjacent buildings.

Materials

Most of the siding materials used in Beverly’s buildings are wood or brick. These materials provide the visual diversity and historic and architectural character to the town. Some of the buildings have been altered with the application of modern materials.

The intent of the guidelines is to provide a continuity of architectural character by using materials that have been used in Beverly historically.

Decorative elements

Many buildings in Beverly contain decorative elements, such as brackets, porch balusters, brick corbels, window and door hoods and trim, and columns. These create the architectural diversity necessary to interpret Beverly’s history.

The intent of the guidelines is to persevere details whenever possible. If details or portions of details no longer exist, replacing them or repairing them is recommended if possible.

New construction and additions

Many buildings in Beverly contain additions. In addition there is a wide time period of construction of existing architectural and historic buildings in the town. All of these contribute to the overall ambiance in town, resulting in a diverse architectural experience.

The intent of the guidelines is to continue the diversity that exists in Beverly. Each building is a product of its own time and should be respected for that.

Maintenance and Repair

Maintenance of older and historic buildings is a primary concern of all owners. The proper maintenance of a building will prolong its useful life as well s protect architectural character that exists. Most buildings deteriorate due to deferred maintenance, and much rehabilitation is required as a result of improperly or not performed maintenance.

The key to proper maintenance is a regular inspection schedule. Periodic inspections will alert owners to required repairs and potential problems. They will identify trouble spots before they become major issues. Inspections should be done on a regular basis, usually associated with calendar periods, such as spring cleaning, winter preparations etc.

Maintenance can include items such as:

Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines

The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings were developed by the National Park Service and are the basis for most of the rehabilitation and historic preservation work in the United States. They are used by government agencies and local organizations to assist owners in the basic standards of maintaining older buildings.

Standards relevant to rehabilitation include:

Standards for new construction are:


Rehabilitation Design Guidelines

The following are guidelines aimed at more specific details of rehabilitation, repair and construction in Beverly. They are intended to explain particular portions of a rehabilitation project or particular activities or elements of buildings in Beverly.

Masonry

Brick is one of the most common materials in Beverly. Stone is also used in a majority of the buildings, at least in foundations and details. Brick is usually red face brick with some other hard fired bricks such as white or buff colored. Stones are usually sandstone. Other masonry includes exterior plaster and stucco.

Proper maintenance of masonry will ensure its longevity. Periodic inspection and repair will reduce overall deterioration. Maintenance includes cleaning, pointing and replacement of sections too deteriorated to repair.

Most deterioration of masonry structures is caused by water infiltration from the roof or gutters or physical damage from insensitive alterations. Very seldom is the material itself the cause of deterioration.

Cleaning is one of the most common activities on masonry buildings during a rehabilitation. Removing years of accumulated soil such as soot and dirt can do wonders for the appearance of a building. In embarking on a cleaning project, the first thing to determine is just how clean a building should be. A small to moderate amount of dirt is acceptable, especially if its removal will damage the building. Removal of minor dirt can cause more harm than good. Cleaning of buildings should be undertaken with extreme caution. It is much easier to damage a structure with incorrect cleaning than to leave the dirt on.

In any case the gentlest means possible should be used. Test various types of cleaning to determine the method of cleaning and the amount of "clean" you want. Try a number of test areas for observation using different chemicals and concentrations. Optimally, these should be left for six weeks before selecting any one treatment. Cautions include protection of adjacent materials and protection of landscaping and adjacent vehicles. Acid should not be used for cleaning. Abrasive means should also not be used for cleaning masonry. These include sandblasting, grit blasting, black beauty, walnut shell blasting, and any form of blasting. The abrasives can remove the exterior face of masonry, exposing soft inner material to deterioration form the environment. High pressure water cleaning should also not be used for the same reasons.

A common deterioration point is the mortar between the masonry units. This is the binder that holds the entire building together. Mortar is meant to deteriorate and be replaced. Brick walls are meant to crack at the joints. Usually it consists of a mixture of sand cement and lime. It acts as a bed for the stone or brick and also mechanically and chemically holds it together to form one homogeneous mass. In very early buildings there is little or no cement in the mixture, hence the term "soft" mortar. The lime and sand form a very soft mixture that is easily crumbled or crushed in one's hand.

Masonry should be pointed, mortar joints retouched, whenever there is missing or deteriorated mortar. Wholesale, 100% joint replacement is not recommended. It is better to spot point only the joints that are in poor condition. Removal should be done by hand. The replacement mortar should match the original in color, strength and characteristics. The mixture should contain lime sand and a small amount of cement in a mixture that is identical to the existing. The sand should be selected to match the original in color, size of granules and texture. White Portland cement should be used and color match achieved by the sand.

Samples of the mortar and the pointing technique should be prepared and allowed to dry and weather for a short while to see the match. It is important to also match the joint profile of the original.

Coating masonry to increase its waterproofness can more often lead to additional damage than leaving it alone. The coating may form a barrier on the surface of the masonry, trapping moisture inside the wall. This can result in damage to the wall from freezing or other water related cause. For this reason, we do not recommend painting masonry that have not previously been painted, or coating walls with "waterproof" compounds, such as silicone.

In addition, we do not recommend removing paint that exists on a masonry wall, unless there is strong evidence that it is damaging the wall. Removal of paint is very difficult and can cause damage.

Whenever possible, original masonry should be retained without applying any surface treatment.

Metals

Original pressed metal cornices, details and ornamentation from the late 19th and early 20th Century is prevalent in West Virginia and occurs in locations in Beverly. Much of this work was purchased through mail order distributors and was readily available to contractors accessible by rail. In time these elements deteriorate through water attack and rust, physical attack by the elements, and physical attack by demolition, alteration etc.

Repairs may consist of reattachment of loose sections, caulking joints, and repainting. Original sections should be retained in all projects. Missing sections should be replaced with matching pieces, if available. If exact match is not available, similar materials or replacement materials of the same appearance may be used.

Wood siding

Wood siding is the predominant material for facades in Beverly. This is associated with residential style buildings. Siding comes in various forms, including clapboard, wide siding, vertical boards, vertical board with battens (smaller boards over the joints), cove or German siding, and other variations. Wood is relatively easy to maintain and repair, as replacement of deteriorated sections can be simply accomplished. After that, the wood must be prepared and painted.

The intent of the guidelines is to repair the original wood material if possible, replace only those portions missing or damaged, and prepare and paint it. Retaining the original material rather than covering it or removing is recommended.

  • Repair existing wood in place.
  • Replace only those sections too damaged to repair. Use replacements that match the originals in size, shape, etc.
  • Prepare and paint wood.
  • Caulk all dissimilar materials and joints.
  • Replace any details and molding, such as window trim, that is disturbed or removed when repairing or replacing siding. Retain any that is possible to keep.
  • Use wood, if possible, in new construction.
  • Use similar detailing, such as window trim, in new construction to provide consistency of architectural elements and proportions.
  • Remove later coverings of inappropriate materials over siding.
  • Do not use vinyl or aluminum over existing materials.
  • If vinyl or aluminum are used in new construction or additions, use appropriate trim etc. to give the building architectural elements.

Details

Most of the building in Beverly display architectural details and elements. These include columns, window and door trim, corner boards, brackets, cornices, caps, etc. They are important to defining the architectural style of the building and the construction techniques and styles of the periods. They should be retained whenever possible or replaced if sections are missing.

The intent of the guidelines is to preserve the architectural details that give the buildings in Beverly character and replace them when missing. New buildings can be given a connection with the historic ones with the application of details that are appropriately scaled and designed to complement the new building and the adjacent existing ones.

  • Retain original details whenever possible. Do not cover with siding, signs, new elements, plywood, etc.
  • Remove non-original elements covering original details whenever possible.
  • Replace missing portions of details with ones that match the originals in size shape, profile and details.
  • Do not apply details that do not correspond to the architectural style of the building or the historic time period. Do not try to make a building more "historic" than it is.
  • Details in new construction, or details that are replacements may be simpler than originals, but in proportion and placement on the building similar to the originals.

Doors

Doors are the first elements encountered when approaching a building. The are extremely important to identifying the character and historical significance of the building. Original doors maintain the architectural style of the building. Many doors have been replaced with newer metal doors that do not match the character of the building. Often a commercial door is replaced with a residential style door or vice versa, thus confusing the style and function of the building.

The intent is to retain the original doors whenever possible and replace them with doors that match or that fit the architectural and historic character of the building.

  • Retain and repair original doors if possible.
  • Paint newer non-original doors to blend with the style of the building if not possible to replace.
  • Replace doors with ones that match the originals and keep in style with the building when it is not possible to retain the original or the original does not exist.
  • Replace doors that do not match the style or function of the building.
  • Maintain the existing relationship between the door and the street. For example if the door is recessed in a storefront or on a porch, retain it in that location.
  • Retain the differentiation between main entrances and secondary entrances. For example, keep porch doors more simple than the front door.

Windows

Windows are the major item in a rehabilitation program. They are one of the more character defining elements in a building, and unfortunately, often require repair. Most windows in Beverly are residential style. Many are single hung. Some buildings have nine over six sash in the town, and these are a unique architectural element to Beverly. There are a few commercial storefront display windows in the commercial, town square, area. The windows in residential buildings are usually vertically oriented. They are seldom square or horizontal.

The intent is to retain the original windows whenever possible. Repair the existing windows with caulking, glazing and glass when necessary. Replace only those missing or too deteriorated to repair. Replacements should match the originals in size, materials, and configuration. The original window opening should not be altered to fit new windows. False application of grills should be discouraged. Windows should match the existing ones or fit the architectural style of the building. If it is not possible to replace window mullions to form a multi-plane pane sash, one over one units are preferable to applied grills.

  • Repair existing windows rather than replace if possible.
  • Replacement windows should match the originals in size, shape, configuration. If metal is used, it should match the originals in color proportions of member sizes and appearance.
  • Retain original significant glass, such as stained or colored glass, beveled glass, prism glass, etc
  • Do not close down the size of the original window openings.
  • Remove any windows that do not fit the original openings if possible.

Roofs

Roofs are an important element in defining the character and architecture of a building, particularly for residential styles. The shape, alignment, slope, materials, colors, and overhang are all important in identifying the historic character. Special materials, such as slate or metal are important architectural elements in themselves, and should be retained whenever possible. When not visible, such as on flat roofs, the material is not as important as the actual operation and other considerations.

The intent is to retain original character defining roofing whenever possible. The original shape and configuration of the roof should be retained. Gutters etc. should be retained, if possible. Any dormers, overhangs, or details should be retained.

  • Retain original roofing if possible.
  • Replace original roofing with materials that match the original if possible.
  • Retain the original shape and slope of the roof. Retain the original alignment and configuration.
  • Standing seam metal in copper, tin or terne coated steel, slate, and mineral fiber slate substitutes are traditional materials that can be used in contemporary work.
  • New fiberglass asphalt shingles can be used provided they are similar in appearance and color to the original roofing.
  • New roofs in additions or new construction should match the originals in material appearance. They should be aligned in a similar manner as the originals or as adjacent buildings. Slopes should reflect the original configurations, or be similar to adjacent buildings.

New Construction Design Guidelines

New construction should not be discouraged in Beverly. It is important to the continued development of the town and to the financial well being of the area. The intent of the design guidelines is not to inhibit rehabilitation and new development. It is rather to channel that new development so that it complements the qualities that have been identified as significant to Beverly’s past and future. New construction should be contemporary in design, yet be compatible with the historic qualities identified in these guidelines.

The intent is to design new buildings and additions that are compatible with the historic architectural qualities of the town, and with the urban design qualities. The intent is not to create cookie cutter imitations of the historic buildings or styles. Modern designs are not discouraged. They should however respect the existing buildings and town through the elements and materials discussed.

  • Do not remove or destroy original significant portions of buildings or entire buildings.
  • Use materials that are similar to those that are found in the town in historic buildings.
  • Use a simple arrangement, not mixing more than two different patterns, textures or styles.
  • Do not imitate historic buildings, details or elements to create a false history.

The same considerations discussed previously apply to new construction. Specifically:

Blocks

Maintain the existing block arrangement found in adjacent buildings. For example, if the block contains detached two story houses with rear garages, continue this pattern.

  • Align new construction similar to adjacent buildings
  • Maintain the open space, set backs etc. arrangement found on adjacent lots.
  • Maintain the residential or commercial character of the adjacent buildings.

Massing

The overall shape and mass of buildings in Beverly is significant to defining the character. They are usually two stories tall, front facing, either square or with rectangular block connected to provide a relatively square overall footprint, set back from the sidewalk. The effect is to visually provide a series of blocks within open spaces.

The overall masses also contain shorter or secondary masses at the rear. These relate to kitchen ells or additions on original buildings. There often also is a one story or two story porch on the rear, which may be shorter than the roof. There is also often a front porch, one or two stories.

Outbuildings usually are located to the rear of the main house. They also are generally shorter than the main house.

The intent of the guidelines is to continue this massing system, or rhythm.

  • Buildings should be located as free standing blocks within the property lines.
  • They should align themselves in the general direction of the adjacent properties.
  • Lower additions or masses should be located on the rear of main blocks of the buildings.
  • Free standing additions or new construction should be located in the same general locations as traditional out buildings, to the rear and side of the main block.
  • Front entrances and additions should be lower than the main block of the buildings.
  • Residential style buildings should have front and rear porches.
  • Large buildings, such as multiple family residential units, should have their massing reduced to similar proportions of adjacent buildings. This can be accomplished with stepped sections, recessed dividing lines at intervals, etc.

Setbacks

Most of the houses in Beverly are set back from the front property line, providing a front yard. This is important to interpreting the residential character of the town.

The intent of the guidelines is to maintain this feature.

  • In the residential sections, practically all of Beverly, buildings should be set back from the property lines.
  • Additions should not be constructed in the front of buildings that eliminate the set backs.
  • Set backs should be within 10% of the depth of adjacent buildings.

Yards

Most houses have rear yards as well as side yards.

The intent of the guidelines is to provide side and rear yards, to create the character of free standing buildings.

  • Buildings should be constructed away from the side lot lines.
  • Side yards should be within 10% of the distance of adjacent lots.
  • Rear yards should be similar in size and proportions to the adjacent lots.
  • Out buildings and additions should be kept away from property lines.

Height

Most of the buildings in Beverly are two stories tall, with occasionally one or three story buildings. They are all relatively similar in height, with gable or hip roofs.

The intent of the guidelines is to have buildings similar in height, to provide a cohesive ambiance to the town. Buildings that are too tall will create a barrier to the rhythm of the massing in town. Buildings that are too short will create a void or space in the rhythm of the blocks.

  • Buildings should be constructed to be within 10% of the heights of adjacent buildings.
  • False walls, additions and parapets should be constructed to be within 10% of the height of adjacent buildings.
  • Details, cornices, brackets, etc. installed on new buildings, should be similar in height location as adjacent buildings.

Rhythm

The rhythm of the buildings in Beverly establishes the overall opening and solid feeling of the blocks. Within the blocks, each building also contains a rhythm. These are established by the arrangement of windows and doors versus solid wall sections.

  • For residential buildings, there is a relatively small proportion of void (openings such as windows and doors) to solids in the main body of the house. The proportion should be about 15 to 25% void to solid.
  • For commercial buildings, approximately 60-75% of the first floor wall should be openings containing display windows and doors.
  • If there is a front porch, the porch should be predominantly open, with very little solid sections.
  • Window openings should be oriented vertically, in similar proportions to adjacent buildings.

Roof lines

Roofs are very important to defining residential architectural styles. Most roofs in Beverly are gable or hip. Some commercial style buildings contain flat roofs, but these are rare in Beverly.

The intent of the guidelines is to have roofs be similar in shape and character to their neighbors, to maintain the overall effect and rhythm

  • New roofs should be gable or hip, in similar slopes to the adjacent buildings.
  • Roofs should be oriented in the same direction as adjacent buildings. For example a gable roof should run parallel to the sidewalk if the neighbors run in the same directions.
  • Irregular roof lines should be considered in areas with Queen Anne or other style neighbors that contain irregular massing. A large solid roof will spoil the rhythm of the block if other roofs are composed of intersecting gables or a number of different heights and slopes.
  • Solid roofs should have dormers or other penetrations and masses similar in proportion to adjacent buildings.

Stories

Most buildings have their different stories identified on the exterior by the position of windows and doors, installation of belt courses, cornices or other details, or by the arrangement of porches, etc. Though the overall height can be similar, buildings with different floor levels will not appear the same from the exterior and will spoil the cohesiveness of the neighborhood.

The intent of the guidelines is to have buildings with similar proportions, indicated by identifying floor levels. Tall buildings and large massed buildings should have the massing broken with floor level indicators and window and door positions in proportion to adjacent buildings.

  • Window and door heads should be located to a height similar, within 10%, of adjacent buildings.
  • Belt courses or accent strips at floor level, identifying floor levels similar to adjacent buildings should be added to break up solid sections of large walls.
  • Porch floors and, ceilings, and roofs should be located at similar heights as adjacent buildings. (within 10%)

Materials

Most of the siding materials used in Beverly’s buildings are wood or brick. These materials provide the visual diversity and historic and architectural character to the town. Some of the buildings have been altered with the application of modern materials.

The intent of the guidelines is to provide a continuity of architectural character by using materials that have been used in Beverly historically.

  • Use materials already employed in the block wherever possible. A vocabulary of building materials has already been established on the street.
  • New materials that are similar in characteristics to existing ones should be used when it is not possible to use historic materials. For example, modern stucco systems may be used to substitute for historic stucco walls.

Decorative elements

Many buildings in Beverly contain decorative elements, such as brackets, porch balusters, brick corbels, window and door hoods and trim, and columns. These create the architectural diversity necessary to interpret Beverly’s history.

The intent of the guidelines is to introduce details in new construction that will add architectural diversity and maintain a connection with the existing buildings. The intent is not to imitate historic details or create a false history.

  • Design new construction and additions with details similar in nature to originals, though do not copy details that do not belong on a building from another. New details should reflect the time period of their construction, not that of an older period.
  • It is sometimes appropriate to accentuate decorative elements with paint colors that contrast with the background.

Width

The rhythm block and massing are all affected by the width of buildings in Beverly.

  • New buildings should maintain the range of widths in adjacent buildings, within 10%.
  • Additions for larger buildings should be set back from the plane of the front of the building to reduce the width at the street line.
  • Large projects should break up the overall mass into compatible building widths through the use of setbacks, changes of material, or the introduction of a simple detail to produce a line or break.

Style

Buildings in Beverly reflect the long time period of significance of the town. They are reflections of the particular time that they were constructed. New construction should respect this continuum of development in the town and be contemporary in design, while respecting the adjacent buildings. False "historical" buildings should not be created.


Design Guidelines for Additional Elements

In addition to the structural and architectural elements of a building, other elements contribute to its character. These include items such as signs, awnings, and lights. In order to maintain the character of the town, these should be addressed in new construction, rehabilitation and additions.

The intent is to provide a complete package of compatible elements in a building. It is not worth protecting and saving decorative architectural fabric if it will be covered over with an insensitive sign or awning.

Lighting

  • Install lights that are compatible with the style and architectural elements of the building. Do not install false historical lighting to create a specific time period.
  • In new construction install lights that are compatible with the building and the adjacent buildings.
  • Install lighting to prevent direct and indirect light and glare from disturbing adjacent properties.
  • Install highlights in obscure areas so the fixtures do not intrude on the historic elements of the buildings.
  • Do not install lights that damage architectural elements.
  • Design brackets and attachments to complement the architectural style of the building.
  • Paint exposed brackets and conduit etc. to blend out and not be visually distracting.
  • Retain existing original exterior lighting fixtures.

Mechanical Systems

The location of new heating and cooling equipment can affect the historic and architectural appearance of the building. If installed insensitively it can cover up or damage significant elements.

The intent is to insure that features installed for modern functional purposes do not damage the historical appearance or architectural character.

  • Install mechanical systems on roofs if possible and if obscured from view. Locate them on the roof so they are not visible.
  • If necessary to install units on the ground, locate them in obscure locations, or screen them with compatible fencing or landscaping.
  • Avoid installing through the wall or window units.

Awnings and Canopies

Awnings and canopies have historically been utilized to protect the interior of the building from the sun. More modern developments have transformed this utilitarian equipment into advertising and design features. It is important to keep the original function of awnings in mind when installing them on new or existing buildings.

The intent is to provide awnings that complement the architectural features and style of a building rather than define it. Awnings should also be functional.

  • Shed-style awnings are preferred; avoid barrel, bubble, or umbrella types.
  • Fabric awnings are preferred.
  • Retractable awnings are acceptable, though not necessary.
  • Install awnings in relation to the opening that they are to protect. For example, the awning should be approximately the same width as the storefront, or window that it covers.
  • Awnings should be installed to provide a minimum 8 foot clearance above the sidewalk, if possible.
  • awnings should not extend up the facade of a building covering the cornice or window or door head.
  • Awning valences should be no more than twelve inches tall.

Storm Windows and Doors

Instead of installing new windows for thermal efficiency, it is desirable to install storm windows and retain the original historic windows. Storm windows can be installed on the interior or exterior of the original sash. They should not hide or obscure significant details of the windows and should be the same size color and configuration as the windows. Storms should be installed to avoid moisture deterioration problems. Weep holes should be provided and interior sills should be protected from standing condensation when using interior storms.

The intent is to preserve the original windows while providing some thermal efficiency.

  • Locate storm sash within the window frame.
  • Match the storm sash to the window sash, and align the meeting rail of the storm sash with that of the window.
  • Storms should match the color of the windows.

Color

Color is one of the most subjective decisions made in a rehabilitation project. The options are endless and it often boils down to preference and personal taste. It is difficult to provide guidelines to assist in making this decision. In addition, paint can always be reversed.

Essentially the intent is to insure compatibility with the architectural style and elements of the building, and to not obscure the architectural character with inappropriate painting.

  • Color schemes should be limited to two colors plus white at the most, unless there is documentation to show other arrangements.
  • Detailing and picking out elements should be done minimally to not overly confuse the observer.
  • Original color schemes, if known, are the best approach.
  • Do not paint masonry not intended for painting.
  • Do not paint metals such as bronze or brass not originally intended for painting.
  • Do not remove patina on metals such as bronze or brass to achieve a shiny bright appearance.
  • Natural or stained wood elements were seldom used on the exterior of buildings with the exception of a few architectural styles such as the Bungalow or Craftsman style.
  • New metal elements should be painted or have a baked on finish to match the original materials.
  • Aluminum or stainless steel of period appropriate building elements, such as 1930’s and 1940’s elements, should match the originals and not be painted.

Relocation and Demolition of Historic Structures

Relocation and demolition of historic structures should be avoided and should be considered only when all other possible alternatives have been investigated. Relocation removes the building from its historical context and also alters the overall block and setting. Demolition forever removes the building from existence. It is not reversible. Before relocation or demolition, the building should be fully documented.

The intent is to maintain the existing ambiance of the town, and to protect valuable resources that cannot be replaced.

  • If relocation is absolutely necessary, the building should be placed in a setting as near to the original as possible, with the same orientation, context etc.

Demolition of a historic structure should take place only as a last resort. The following should be considered:

  • The physical condition of the building based on an engineer’s or architect’s report.
  • The cost of stabilizing the structure and bringing the building into compliance with the building code for its intended use as opposed to the cost of new construction on the site for the same purpose.
  • The intended use of the property and the design and compatibility of any replacement buildings.

Signs

Signs are an important element of commercial buildings. More and more residential buildings are converted to commercial use, and sign design plays an increasingly important role in residential neighborhoods as more home based business develop. The sign is necessary to identify the business and highlight the building. They should be compatible with the design of the building and also with the block. Signs should be oriented to the pedestrian rather than vehicular traffic. This results in signs that are smaller than normally associated with traditional strip and mall development, but more in character with the town and actual function. Most clients will be familiar with the location or will be traveling at low speeds in vehicles or on foot. Large, garish or lighted signs are not necessary to convey the information.

The intent is to provide signs that are compatible with the building’s architectural style and character, and provide information. They should not obscure any significant details of the building or of the lot and site. They should not distract adjacent property owners.

  • Signs should be simple in nature with legible typestyles and color arrangements. Lettering should encompass approximately 33-50% of the sign height. Logos should be limited to 20% of the sign area.
  • Avoid the use of backlit or lighted signs.
  • Avoid the use of national logos
  • Signs should be compatible with the color of the building.
  • Signs should be compatible with the materials and textures of the building.
  • Original historic or architecturally significant signs should be retained.
  • Do not cover historic or architectural detail in the building
  • Install signs in locations reserved for them on buildings, such as in recesses.
  • Install signs in appropriate areas such as above cornices or within the transom areas of storefronts.
  • Install signs on windows. Use less than 25% of window area.
  • Install signs in similar locations as on adjacent buildings.
  • Projecting signs should not be lower than 8 feet above the sidewalk and should not project more than four feet.
  • Signs should not extend above the roofline of the building.
  • First floor uses should not have signs above the first floor.
  • Avoid the use of flashing or moving lighting.
  • Install light directed at the sign to illuminate it.
  • Additional informational signs, such as credit card information, should be arranged orderly on the window or door in an inconspicuous location.
  • signs should be maintained while installed and removed as soon as the tenant vacates the building.
  •  


APPENDIX A

Bibliography

The following books and publications are sources of additional information for property owners interested in learning more about preservation of their buildings.

Guides to Architectural Styles and Related Information

Blumenson, John J.-G. Identifying American Architecture: A Pictorial Guide to Styles and Terms, 1600-1945. Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State and Local History, 1977.

"Getting to Know Your Early Twentieth Century Neighborhood," Conserve Neighborhoods, No. 25, July-August 1982, pp. 231-245.

Whiffen, Marcus. American Architecture Since 1780: A Guide to the Styles. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1969.

Technical Information on Preservation and Rehabilitation

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings. Washington, DC, US Govt. Printing Office.

Technical Preservation Services, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Respectful Rehabilitation, Answers to Your Questions About Old Buildings, The Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation.

London, Mark, Respectful Rehabilitation, How To Care For Old and Historic Brick and Stone, The Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation.

Preservation Briefs: The National Park Service publishes a series of short articles on technical preservation issues. A complete list is available from the State Historic Preservation Office.

Also see the following National Park Service publications:

Grimmer, Ann E. Keeping it Clean: Removing Exterior Dirt, Paint, Stains and Graffiti from Historic Masonry Buildings. Wash., DC: National Park Service, 1988.

Smith, Baird M. Moisture Problems in Historic Masonry Walls: Diagnosis and Treatment. Washington, DC: National Park Service, n.d.


APPENDIX B

Glossary

The following glossary defines terms used in these Guidelines.

Bay = One unit of a building that consists of a series of similar units, commonly defined by the number of window and door openings per floor or by the number of spaces between columns and piers.

Bay Window = The window of a protruding bay.

Bond = The physical arrangement and placement of either brick or stone to create a wall pattern and to strengthen a wall.

Bracket = A support element under the eaves or other overhangs, often more decorative than functional.

Brick Veneer = A facing of brick laid against a wall and not structurally bonded to the wall.

Capital = The topmost member, usually decorated, of a column or pilaster.

Clapboard = A long narrow board with one edge thicker than the other to facilitate overlap; used to cover the outer walls of frame structures. Also known as weatherboard, bevel siding, lap siding.

Column = A vertical support or pillar.

Context = The surroundings, both historical and environmental, of a building or town.

Coping = A cap or covering at the top edge of a wall, either flat or sloping, to shed water.

Corbel = A slightly projecting architectural element, usually in masonry, cantilevered from upper exterior walls; usually topped by a cornice or coping.

Cornice = The upper projecting section or molding along the top of a building wall.

Dormer = A structure with a window or ventilating louvers that projects from a sloping roof.

Eave = The edge of a roof that projects over an outside wall.

Facade = The face of a building, the elevation of a building that faces the viewer.

Gable = Triangular wall segments at the end of a gambrel or pitched roof.

Gambrel Roof = A ridged roof with two slopes on each side, the lower roof having the steeper pitch.

Gingerbread = A pierced wooden curvilinear ornament, executed with a jigsaw or scroll saw and located under the eaves of the roof.

Hipped Roof = A roof with slopes on all four sides.

Light = A pane of glass in a window or a glazed component of a window.

Lintel = A horizontal structural member, such as a beam over an opening, that carries the weight of the wall above it.

Mansard Roof = A roof with a double slope on all four sides, the lower slope having a steeper pitch.

Mass = The bulk and shape of a building.

Pediment = A wide, low-pitched gable surmounting the facade of a building in a classical style; any similar element used over doors and windows.

Pilaster = A pier or pillar attached to a wall, often with capital and base.

Portico = A large porch or covered walk with a roof supported by columns or piers.

Preservation = Maintaining a building’s current appearance through diligent maintenance and repair.

Protection = Ensuring the continued existence of historic or cultural resources through various public and private initiatives.

Reconstruction = New construction to accurately recreate a vanished building or architectural element based on reliable physical, documentary, or graphic evidence.

Rehabilitation = Repairing and altering a structure to make it usable again; distinctive architectural features are preserved.

Remodeling = Changing a building without regard to its distinctive architectural features or style.

Restoration = Returning a building to its documented past appearance by removing later work and repairing and replacing distinctive features.

Rhythm = A pattern in spacing of buildings or architectural elements (doors, windows, porches, etc.) giving a cadence to the visual aspect of the district.

Ridge = The highest point of a roof. Also the horizontal line where two roof planes meet.

Scale = The apparent size and mass of a building’s facade and form in relation to nearby buildings. Important factors in establishing the scale of a facade include the physical relationship of elements such as window area to wall area; the shape and size of fenestration forms such as the subdivision of windows into lights; the bonding pattern of the brickwork; and details such as cornices and trim.

Shed Roof = A roof with only one sloping plane.

Sill = A horizontal timber at the bottom of a wood frame structure that rests on the foundation. The horizontal bottom member of a window, door, or other frame.

Soffit = The exposed undersurface of an overhead building component such as a roof.

Stabilization = Work to halt deterioration of a building by making it weathertight and structurally stable awaiting more extensive rehabilitation or restoration.

Street Wall = The line formed by the facades of buildings at a common height and setback for the street.

Texture = The visual pattern on a facade created by building materials and details.

Transom = A window immediately above a door, usually hinged.

Veranda = A covered porch or balcony extending along the outside of a building planned for natural ventilation, shading, and summer leisure.

Vernacular = Built according to traditional designs and methods, usually without the direct involvement of an architect.


APPENDIX C

Additional Architectural Styles

The town of Beverly, both within and beyond the Beverly Historic District, contains examples of a wide variety of late nineteenth and early twentieth century architectural styles, including Cabin, I-House, Tri-Gable L, Princess or Queen Anne, Bungalow, and Commercial. Some of these buildings are academic, "textbook" examples of their particular style, but more common - and equally significant - are the vernacular buildings which show the influence of popular styles primarily in their decorative detailing.

The distinctive characteristics which define a building’s style are especially important to preserve, and should receive special consideration in planning for maintenance or rehabilitation. The following paragraphs and illustrations provide an introduction to the historical background and distinguishing features of the architectural styles represented in the Beverly area. Further information can be found in several useful guides to architectural styles, which are listed in the Bibliography.

Cabin before ca. 1850-1890

Most early cabins were made of logs. These were either one or two story rectangular houses with few windows or openings. Technically, these cabins are called Pre-Railroad Folk Houses. The houses built during this period spanned the long interval between the earliest permanent settlements of the 17th century and the growth of the railroads as an efficient national transportation network in the last half of the 19th century. Throughout these two hundred years, many modest dwellings were, of necessity, constructed of local materials without stylistic embellishment. Because the eastern half of the country was covered with virgin forests; here wooden folk building became the rule. In most cases, the log cabins that survived very long were added on to, and the exterior and interior surfaces covered over, as the family became more established.

I - House (after ca. 1850-1890)

Another example of Folk Houses in Pre-Railroad America is the I-House. This style, usually two rooms wide and one room deep, is a traditional British folk form. With the arrival of the railroads, this style became popular over much of the eastern half of the country. The railroads made possible the transportation of materials to build these houses from large lumberyards quickly becoming standard fixtures in the thousands of new towns which sprouted as trade centers along the railroad routes. Most of these houses in the Beverly vicinity are built of wood frame construction, but a few are of brick. Often they would have a one or two story L extension at right angles in the rear, either as part of the original construction or as a later addition.

Tri-Gable L (late 19th - early 20th century)

This style descended from styled Greek Revival houses and became common in rural areas. In this style, an additional side-gabled wing was added at right angles to the gable-front plan to give a compound, gable-front-and-wing shape. A shed-roofed porch was typically placed within the L made by the two wings. These homes were usually wood frame, often with ornamental trim or scrollwork and possibly bay windows.

Queen Anne or Princess ca. 1880-1910

This style is characterized by steeply pitched roof of irregular shape, usually with a dominant front-facing gable; patterned shingles, cutaway bay windows, and other devices used to avoid a smooth-walled appearance; asymmetrical facade with partial or full-width porch which is usually one story high and extended along one or both side walls. Elaborate, often architect design versions, were called Queen Anne; less elaborate houses utilizing some of the same elements are called Princess Anne.

Craftsman or Bungalow ca. 1905-1930

Identifying features of this style are low-pitched, gabled roof (occasionally hipped) with wide, unenclosed eave overhang; roof rafters usually exposed; decorative (false) beams or braces commonly added under gables; porches, either full- or partial-width, with roof supported by tapered square columns; columns or pedestals frequently extend to ground level (without a break at level of porch floor).

Commercial

This Architectural style is used to describe simple commercial architecture that does not follow clear and definitive architectural styling patterns of a known period.

Typical Beverly commercial buildings are two to three stories of brick masonry construction. Architectural features include large plate glass windows with flat transoms on the first floor entry level and rectangular, single pane, double hung, sash windows with an unenriched window frame, sill and lintel. Roofs are flat or with low-pitched lines and features a small cornice with little detailing or decoration, if one still remains. Examples of this style are found in the central part of the Historic District.